World’s Top 10 Supercomputers with their Cost, Speed and Usage
The history of Supercomputers are dated back to early 60s with development of Atlas, the first supercomputer (installed at Manchester University) with asynchronous processor due to which the processing speed is not measurable but far less than an ordinary desktop computers at your home. But today’s supercomputers have thousands time more processing speed and in fact, thousand time costly too than our desktop computers.
The performance or processing speed of supercomputer is measured in petaflop that is equal to a million billion or a thousand trillion floating point operations per second. These massive machines are not made for fun but rather help scientists, meteorologists to do research or forecast global climate and whether, while some are used being to simulate brain activity or effects of storm or wind on a plane.
Take a look at world top 10 supercomputers as announced in November 2013 by Top500.org, the organization updating the list half-yearly.
1. Tianhe-2 (MilkyWay-2)
In the war of supercomputer manufacturing, Chinese Tianhe-2 (TH-2 or Milky way2) dominated and has on top of the list since June 2013, remain undefeated till to date. Tianhe-2 is a 33.86 petaflops supercomputer developed by a team of 1300 scientists and engineers located in University of Sun-Yat-sen, Guangzhou, China. This supercomputer has 3,120,000 core processors.
Country: China Site: National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) Manufacturer: National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) Cores: 3,120,000 Linpack Performance (Rmax): 33,862.7 TFlop/s Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 54,902.4 TFlop/s Power: 17,808.00 kW Memory: 1,024,000 GB Operating System: Kylin Linux Purpose/Usage: For local weather service and the National Offshore Oil Corporation Cost: 2.4 billion Yuan or 3 billion Hong Kong dollars (390 million US Dollars)
Titan supercomputer is 560,640-core computer which is actually an upgraded version of Jaguar supercomputer developed by an American Supercomputer manufacturer Cray Research Inc. (CRI) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The initial cost of the unit were approximately $60 million, funded by U.S Department of Energy (DoE) which is raised to $97millions due to addition of Storage system.
Country: U.S. Site: DOE/SC/Oak Ridge National Laboratory Manufacturer: Cray Inc. Cores: 560,640 Linpack Performance (Rmax): 17,590.0 TFlop/s Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 27,112.5 TFlop/s Power: 8,209.00 kW Memory: 710,144 GB Operating System: Cray Linux Environment Purpose/Usage: Use to simulate Molecular physics, energy, activity and interaction between electron and atom, global atmosphere modeling. Cost: $100 million
Sequoia – Blue Gene/Q supercomputer manufactured by IBM for National Nuclear Security Administration (NSSA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is deployed over the site in June 2012 and gain the world #1supercomputer award.
Country: U.S. Site: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Manufacturer: IBM Cores: 1,572,864 Linpack Performance (Rmax): 17,173.2 TFlop/s Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 20,132.7 TFlop/s Power: 7,890.00 kW Memory: 1,572,864 GB Operating System: Linux Purpose/Usage: Nuclear weapons simulation, energy, astronomy, study of the human genome, and climate change. Cost: $250 million dollar
4. K computer
Country: Japan Site: RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (AICS) Manufacturer: Fujitsu Cores: 705,024 Linpack Performance (Rmax): 10,510.0 TFlop/s Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 11,280.4 TFlop/s Power: 12,659.89 kW Memory: 1,410,048 GB Operating System: Linux Purpose/Usage: Climate research, Medical researches and Disaster prevention
Cost: $1.2 billion US dollar
Country: U.S. Site: DOE/SC/Argonne National Laboratory Manufacturer: IBM Cores: 786,432 Linpack Performance (Rmax): 8,586.6 TFlop/s Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 10,066.3 TFlop/s Power: 3,945.00 kW Operating System: Linux Purpose/Usage: Used for scientific research in the fields of material science, climatology and computational chemistry. Cost: $50 million dollar
6. Piz Daint
Site: Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS) Manufacturer: Cray Inc. Cores: 115,984 LinpackPerformance (Rmax): 6,271.0 TFlop/s TheoreticalPeak (Rpeak): 7,788.9 TFlop/s Power: 2,325.00 kW OperatingSystem: Cray Linux Environment Purpose/Usage: Weather forecast, climatology and scientific researches Cost: ??? dollars
Country: U.S. Site: Texas Advanced Computing Center/Univ. of Texas, Austin Manufacturer: Dell Cores: 462,462 Linpack Performance (Rmax): 5,168.1 TFlop/s Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 8,520.1 TFlop/s Power: 4,510.00 kW Memory: 192,192 GB Operating System: Linux Purpose/Usage: In the field of medicine to detect brain tumors, biology (especially microbiology) human genetics, geophysics and earth sciences for earthquake forecast. Cost: More than $56 million dollar
Country: Germany Site: Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) Manufacturer: IBM Cores: 458,752 Linpack Performance (Rmax): 5,008.9 TFlop/s Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 5,872.0 TFlop/s Power: 2,301.00 kW Memory: 458,752 GB Operating System: Linux Purpose/Usage: For researches in different fields of science Cost: ??? dollars
9. Vulcan – Blue Gene
Country: U.S. Site: DOE/NNSA/ Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Manufacturer: IBM Cores: 393,216 Linpack Performance (Rmax): 4,293.3 TFlop/s Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 5,033.2 TFlop/s Power: 1,972.00 kW Memory: 393,216 GB Operating System: Linux Purpose/Usage: Used for researches in Biology, Plasma Physics, Climate Science, Molecular Systems and Solid & Fluid Engineering Cost: $100 million
10. Super MUC
Country: Germany Site: Leibniz Rechenzentrum Manufacturer: IBM Cores: 147,456 Lin pack Performance (Rmax): 2,897.0 TFlop/s Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 3,185.1 TFlop/s Power: 3,422.67 kW Operating System: Linux Purpose/Usage: Researchers in Medicine, Astrophysics, Earth quake simulation, computational chemistry, fluid dynamics and genome analysis Cost: $111million dollar