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World’s Top 10 Supercomputers with their Cost, Speed and Usage

Top 10 supercomputers

The history of Supercomputers are dated back to early 60s with development of Atlas, the first supercomputer (installed at Manchester University) with asynchronous processor due to which the processing speed is not measurable but far less than an ordinary desktop computers at your home. But today’s supercomputers have thousands time more processing speed and in fact, thousand time costly too than our desktop computers.

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The performance or processing speed of supercomputer is measured in petaflop that is equal to a million billion or a thousand trillion floating point operations per second. These massive machines are not made for fun but rather help scientists, meteorologists to do research or forecast global climate and whether, while some are used being to simulate brain activity or effects of storm or wind on a plane.

 Take a look at world top 10 supercomputers as announced in November 2013 by Top500.org, the organization updating the list half-yearly.

 

1. Tianhe-2 (MilkyWay-2)

Top 10 supercomputers

In the war of supercomputer manufacturing, Chinese Tianhe-2 (TH-2 or Milky way2) dominated and has on top of the list since June 2013, remain undefeated till to date. Tianhe-2 is a 33.86 petaflops supercomputer developed by a team of 1300 scientists and engineers located in University of Sun-Yat-sen, Guangzhou, China. This supercomputer has 3,120,000 core processors.

Country: China
Site: National University of Defense Technology (NUDT)
Manufacturer: National University of Defense Technology (NUDT)
Cores: 3,120,000
Linpack Performance (Rmax): 33,862.7 TFlop/s
Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 54,902.4 TFlop/s
Power: 17,808.00 kW
Memory: 1,024,000 GB
Operating System: Kylin Linux
Purpose/Usage: For local weather service and the National Offshore Oil Corporation
Cost: 2.4 billion Yuan or 3 billion Hong Kong dollars (390 million US Dollars)

 2. Titan

Top 10 supercomputers

Titan supercomputer is 560,640-core computer which is actually an upgraded version of Jaguar supercomputer developed by an American Supercomputer manufacturer Cray Research Inc. (CRI) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The initial cost of the unit were approximately $60 million, funded by U.S Department of Energy (DoE) which is raised to $97millions due to addition of Storage system.

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Country: U.S.
Site: DOE/SC/Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Manufacturer: Cray Inc.
Cores: 560,640
Linpack Performance (Rmax): 17,590.0 TFlop/s
Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 27,112.5 TFlop/s
Power: 8,209.00 kW
Memory: 710,144 GB
Operating System: Cray Linux Environment
Purpose/Usage: Use to simulate Molecular physics, energy, activity and interaction between electron and atom, global atmosphere modeling.
Cost: $100 million

3. Sequoia

Top 10 supercomputers

Sequoia – Blue Gene/Q supercomputer manufactured by IBM for National Nuclear Security Administration (NSSA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is deployed over the site in June 2012 and gain the world #1supercomputer award.

Country: U.S.
Site: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Manufacturer: IBM
Cores: 1,572,864
Linpack Performance (Rmax): 17,173.2 TFlop/s
Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 20,132.7 TFlop/s
Power: 7,890.00 kW
Memory: 1,572,864 GB
Operating System: Linux
Purpose/Usage: Nuclear weapons simulation, energy, astronomy, study of the human genome, and climate change.
Cost: $250 million dollar

4. K computer

Top 10 supercomputers

Country: Japan
Site: RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (AICS)
Manufacturer: Fujitsu
Cores: 705,024
Linpack Performance (Rmax): 10,510.0 TFlop/s
Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 11,280.4 TFlop/s
Power: 12,659.89 kW
Memory: 1,410,048 GB
Operating System: Linux
Purpose/Usage: Climate research, Medical researches and Disaster prevention
Cost:
$1.2 billion US dollar

5. Mira

Top 10 supercomputers

Country: U.S.
Site: DOE/SC/Argonne National Laboratory
Manufacturer: IBM
Cores: 786,432
Linpack Performance (Rmax): 8,586.6 TFlop/s
Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 10,066.3 TFlop/s
Power: 3,945.00 kW
Operating System: Linux
Purpose/Usage: Used for scientific research in the fields of material science, climatology and computational chemistry.
Cost: $50 million dollar

6. Piz Daint

Top 10 supercomputers

Country: Switzerland
Site:
Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS)
Manufacturer: Cray Inc.
Cores: 115,984
Linpack Performance (Rmax): 6,271.0 TFlop/s
Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 7,788.9 TFlop/s
Power: 2,325.00 kW
Operating System: Cray Linux Environment
Purpose/Usage: Weather forecast, climatology and scientific researches
Cost: ??? dollars

7. Stampede

Top 10 supercomputers

Country: U.S.
Site: Texas Advanced Computing Center/Univ. of Texas, Austin
Manufacturer: Dell
Cores: 462,462
Linpack Performance (Rmax): 5,168.1 TFlop/s
Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 8,520.1 TFlop/s
Power: 4,510.00 kW
Memory: 192,192 GB
Operating System: Linux
Purpose/Usage: In the field of medicine to detect brain tumors, biology (especially microbiology) human genetics, geophysics and earth sciences for earthquake forecast.
Cost: More than $56 million dollar

 

8.  JUQUEEN

Top 10 supercomputers

Country: Germany
Site: Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ)
Manufacturer: IBM
Cores: 458,752
Linpack Performance (Rmax): 5,008.9 TFlop/s
Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 5,872.0 TFlop/s
Power: 2,301.00 kW
Memory: 458,752 GB
Operating System: Linux
Purpose/Usage: For researches in different fields of science
Cost: ??? dollars

9. Vulcan – Blue Gene

Top 10 supercomputers

Country: U.S.
Site: DOE/NNSA/ Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Manufacturer: IBM
Cores: 393,216
Linpack Performance (Rmax): 4,293.3 TFlop/s
Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 5,033.2 TFlop/s
Power: 1,972.00 kW
Memory: 393,216 GB
Operating System: Linux
Purpose/Usage: Used for researches in Biology, Plasma Physics, Climate Science, Molecular Systems and Solid & Fluid Engineering
Cost: $100 million

10. Super MUC

Top 10 supercomputers

Country: Germany
Site: Leibniz Rechenzentrum
Manufacturer: IBM
Cores: 147,456
Lin pack Performance (Rmax): 2,897.0 TFlop/s
Theoretical Peak (Rpeak): 3,185.1 TFlop/s
Power: 3,422.67 kW
Operating System: Linux
Purpose/Usage: Researchers in Medicine, Astrophysics, Earth quake simulation, computational chemistry,  fluid dynamics and genome analysis
Cost: $111million dollar

source: www.top500.org
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Difference between Biological and Computer virus

Interesting features and differences between Biological and Computer Viruses

Biological Viruses (or Human Viruses) are Nanotechnology by Nature while computer viruses are infectious agent by made by humans. Most often the people think Biological viruses and Computer viruses as a same entity, although both cause infection and damage to their host (or target) and some of their features & characteristics are same but they are quite different from each other. Following table enlists some interesting main difference between Biological Virus and Computer Viruses

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1. Living – non living

Biological Virus
Biological viruses are living (at least to some extent) biological entity who can reproduce itself

Computer Virus
Computer viruses are non – living at all, they are manmade malicious computer coding which are programmed to perform specific functions

2. Host

Biological Virus
They are living, thus infects living things. Biological Viruses can infect all form of life including Human, Animals, Plants, Insects, Bacteria, Protozoa, Fungi, Archae and other viruses (Yes, there are some viriophage exist)

Computer Virus
They are programmed, thus made impact on programs (softwares) Computer viruses infect mostly PCs, Servers, websites and software. Computer viruses mostly targets PCs with MS windows Operating system and rarely other Operating System.

3. History

Biological Virus
The history of Biological virus’s evolution is dated back where the Life begins; they are as old as bacteria (about 2.5 billion year). The first written and proven case of viral infection is depicted on 3700 B.C old ancient painting which shows the case of poliomyelitis.

Computer Virus
The first computer virus was “Creepy” virus which is written (coded) in 1971 by Bob Thomas. This virus remotely spread and copied itself, just show the message “I am creepy, catch me if you can”.

4. Components

Biological Virus
As a biological entity or living organism, Biological virus contain genetic material (in the form of RNA or DNA), covered by a coat of protein (called Capsid) and sometime by a lipid Envelop

Computer Virus
A computer virus is not more than a few lines of code. It contains a script or code of programming language written in C, C++ or other assembly languages.

5. Mechanism of action

Biological Virus
Biological viruses infect their host after they enter the host body and reach inside the cell where the virus uses the host genetic material (DNA or RNA )to replicate and expend their population

Computer Virus
Computer viruses, similarly infect computers when they enter and reach the registry (or the specific components/area for which they are programmed) where they cause the damage (usually hiding or disabling some files or functions) 

6. Types

Biological Virus
Classify by many ways, mostly by the body system which the biological virus infect. Their types include Neuroviruses, Enteroviruses, Rhino viruses, Respiratory viruses, etc.

Structurally their classification include RNA viruses and DNA viruses

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Computer Virus
Classify by the components or subsystem of the host which they infects. Their types includes, system viruses, Macro viruses (infect application e.g.MS Word, MS Outlook) and Boot sector viruses (which target Master Boot Record).

Programmatically their types include .exe viruses, .COM viruses or  a batch files (.bat) virus

7. Hazards

Biological Virus
They causes severe damage to the organ or system they involved which may be reversible (as in case of Hepatitis A, Flu) or lifelong irreversible (i.e. Poliomyelitis, Rabies or Hepatitis C viruses)

Computer Virus
They causes damage to the system or component of the PC which they infect and can result in burden on system memory, system crush and permanent lost of a document or a file or other data.

8. Benefits

Biological Virus
Biological viruses to some extent, are helpful and beneficial in the sense that they are being used in gene therapy to introduce therapeutic genetic material to the diseased cell (e.g. in case of cancer)

Computer Virus
Computer viruses, till to date, has no any beneficial role. They always cause damage and lost to the system am data.

9. Prevention

Biological Virus
Biological viruses are preventable by getting vaccinated against them. Vaccines (or even some viruses) help our boy to develop immunity against the occurrence or re-occurrence of the same disease again.

Computer Virus
Well, there is no such scenario in case of computer viruses, even with having a powerful Antivirus or fire wall on your system, your system may still got infected, as the developer continually write the malicious code and it across networks to get their job done.

10. Treatment

Biological Virus
Biological viruses can be treated to some extent with Antiviral drugs e.g. Acyclovir or you can get symptomatic treatment against them.

Computer Virus
Computer viruses can be detect and remove with the help of Antivirus. But still it is unpredictable how much damage they can left or made to the system and some time you need to re-install the operating system

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